Henri VIII en profite pour s'en débarrasser, et elle est exécutée en 1536. Le roi jette ensuite son dévolu sur Jeanne Seymour, dont il tombe très amoureux. Miracle, elle lui donne un fils, Edouard, en 1537 ! Malheur, elle meurt la même annéeHenri VIII ne s'en remet jamais vraiment. Le quatrième mariage d'Henri VIII, avec Anne de. Découvrez Henri VIII et la religion analysée par Olivier SPINA au travers d'œuvres et d'images d'archive. La composition du dessin est centrée sur le mouvement de John Clerk au moment même où il offre l'Assertio au pape dans l'une des salles du Vatican. Il est représenté agenouillé, dans la posture habituelle de l'offrant, qui s'apparente cependant aussi à un hommage. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his six marriages, and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled.His disagreement with Pope Clement VII on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England.
Henry VIII (1491 - 1547) was king of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was lord, and later king, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of. Henri VIII voyait dans son mariage avec la veuve de son frère, le défunt prince Arthur, un mauvais présage divin, présage conforté par l'absence de descendance mâle. Ce n'est pas simplement une querelle politique, mais aussi une considération théologique complexe qui poussa Henri VIII à vouloir annuler son mariage : à cette époque, ne pas engendrer d'héritier mâle est perçu comme. Religion / Reformation The Break from Rome . Introduction. In the 16th century, there was a big change in the way some Christians worshipped God. Up until the 16th century most people were Roman Catholic and the Pope in Rome was the head of all the Christian Church. In 1517, a German monk called Martin Luther led a breakaway from the Roman Catholic church. The new Christians called themselves. Biographie courte de Henri VIII - Henri VIII (ou Henry VIII) naît deuxième fils d'Henri VII. La mort de son frère Arthur lui permet d'accéder au trône en 1509. Il met alors ses fortes qualités intellectuelles au service de son pays. Il s'applique à entretenir de bonnes relations avec la France et l'Espagne. Il épouse d'ailleurs la tante d
L'anglicanisme est une religion proche du christiannisme née en Angleterre au XVIème siècle sous le règne d'Henri VIII, quand il rompit avec Rome et le pape. La source du conflit entre le roi et la papauté tire son origine dans les tentatives du monarque pour obtenir l'annulation de son mariage avec la reine Catherine d'Aragon en 1527 et et du refus ferme et définitif du pape en 1530 et. Henry VIII born. 1547. Henry VIII dies. 1549. Book of Common Prayer released. An auspicious beginning. Henry was born the second son of Henry VII. He was intelligent, handsome, physically powerful. What was the religion of Henry VIII's children? Top Answer. Wiki User. 2010-06-10 16:11:01 2010-06-10 16:11:01. Henry's eldest child, Mary, later Queen Mary, was Catholic. His son, Edward, later.
Any timeline of Henry VIII will show a great number of major events that changed the course of England's history. A timeline for Henry VIII will show how a divorce from Catherine of Aragon led to the English Reformation - this led to the break from the Catholic Church in Rome and eventually in the reign of Edward VI was to lead to the establishment of the Church of England . He was the first king during the Tudor reign in England, and his reign lasted from 1485 until his death in 1509. Henry VII was the last king of England who ruled all of his reign as a Roman Catholic. Henry VII's second son and heir, Henry VIII, goes. Henry VIII was at one time a very celebrated Catholic, so much so that he was awarded the title Defender of the Faith by the pope for a tract he had done with support from St. Thomas More in.
Henry VIII's prayer roll. Henry VIII's prayer scroll. Measuring over three metres in length, this roll contains prayers in Latin and English and fourteen illuminated images, which include martyred saints, St George slaying the dragon, and Christ's Passion. View images from this item (12) Usage terms . Public Domain in most countries other than the UK. Henry's Catholic worship was typical. Henry VIII fundamentally changed the nature of religion in England by breaking free of the Catholic Church. This established the groundwork for England to become a Protestant country. Despite the. Henry VIII - Religion. 0.0 / 5. Hide Show resource information. History; British monarchy - Tudors and Stuarts; AS; AQA; Created by: GraceRobinson; Created on: 10-05-17 13:05; Between 1513-1515 what positions did Wolsey succeed? Dean of York, Bishop of Tournai (after Battle of Spurs) and Cardinal. Henry also supported him, persuading Pope Leo X to make him Cardinal + Papal Legate which enabled. Henry VIII - Religion Timeline created by lilytribe. In Uncategorized. May 1, 1530. William Tyndale's vernacular bible is burnt Attack on heresy against Catholicism Dec 1, 1530. The whole of the clergy is accused of praemunire This attacked the power of the Catholic Church to exercise power through ecclesiastical courts in England Feb 1, 1531. Clergy is pardoned of the praemunire charge Henry. Henry VIII was born at Greenwich on 28 June 1491, the second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. He became heir to the throne on the death of his elder brother, Prince Arthur, in 1502 and succeeded in 1509. In his youth he was athletic and highly intelligent. A contemporary observer described him thus: 'he speaks good French, Latin and Spanish; is very religious; hear
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was the King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. He is perhaps one of England's most famous monarchs because he split England from the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope, and because he married six times.. Henry VIII increased the power of the monarchy and government over the country. Many people he did not like were executed under his. C'est seulement à partir de 1596 qu'on les appellera « guerres de religion • En Angleterre, le roi Henry VIII jette les bases de l'église anglicane, dont il s'érige en chef suprême. • Dans les Pays-Bas, la Réforme protestante devient un outil d'émancipation de la bourgeoisie à l'égard de la monarchie espagnole. • Le plus grave survient dans le Saint Empire romain germanique. Although the Injuntions of 1536 and 1538 suggest that Henry VIII was influenced by the New Learning, the Statute of the Six Articles, passed in 1539, shows that he was nevertheless prepared to enforce under heavy penalties the fundamental doctrines of the Church. Approved by Convocation and enacted by Parliament in Jun 1539, the statute arose from Henry's personal conservatism in matters of. Elle est pourtant encore aggravée lorsque Henri VIII, malgré les objurgations de son ministre, entreprend de divorcer d'avec la reine Catherine d'Aragon, qui ne lui a pas donné d'héritier. 2. De 1534 à 1540 2.1. La rupture avec la papauté et le divorce d'Henri VIII Toujours sans héritier mâle . Le problème des mariages d'Henri VIII va se révéler d'une importance primordiale dans l. In 1533, Henry VIII broke from the church and married the now pregnant Anne Boleyn in a secret ceremony. This solved his heir problem, but Henry was excommunicated. by the Pope. The English.
LES 6 FEMMES D'HENRI VIII En 1509, Henri VIII avait dix-huit ans et était le deuxième Tudor à monter sur le trône. Il était à cette époque très beau, athlète et fort populaire. Cependant, en plus d'être rusé et intelligent, il s'est s'avéré très cruel et jaloux. De plus, il aura l'occasion au cours de son long règne de 38 ans de contracter six épouses, ce qui caractérisa ce. Before Henry VIII quarrelled with the Pope and established the Church of England, England had been a faithful Catholic country for centuries. In the days before the annulling of his first marriage became such a political issue throughout Europe, Henry too had been a faithful Catholic, and had earned the title of Defender of the Faith for writing a piece of work against the new Protestant. Henri VIII et ses 6 femmes. Henri VIII d'Angleterre (1491 - 1547), poussé par le désir d'avoir un héritier mâle a eu une vie sentimentale tumultueuse qui a eu pour conséquence la création de l'Église d'Angleterre (et la rupture avec Rome) On the rare occasion, a new religion is born from the founder's stalwart belief that they have communicated with powers on a higher plane than man, and that the truth must be allowed to flow into the public square. Henry made no such claims. No, Henry VIII created the Church of England for the oldest and noblest of reasons: he was mad thirsty, yo Le roi d'Angleterre Henri VIII veut répudier sa femme Catherine d'Aragon qui ne lui a pas donné de fils. Il demande au pape d'annuler son mariage. Catherine est la tante de l'empereur Charles Quint. Tiraillé entre l'Angleterre et l'Espagne, le pape Clément VII laisse traîner l'affaire. Excédé, Henri VIII fait voter l'annulation de son mariage par une cour ecclésiastique.
King Henry VIII wanted out from his first marriage. Though early signs of anticlericalism had surfaced in England by the 1520s, Catholicism still enjoyed widespread popular support Henri, d'habitude réservé et ne montrant pas ses sentiments, en fut très attristé. Henri obtient une dispense du pape Jules II, afin que la veuve Catherine d'Aragon puisse se remarier avec son fils cadet, le futur Henri VIII. Le mariage n'aura lieu qu'après la mort d'Henri VII, le 11 juin 1509, selon les volontés de ce dernier
Mais, sur un plan beaucoup plus sérieux, c'est aussi sa passion pour Anne Boleyn qui va pousser Henry VIII à réformer totalement la religion en Grande-Bretagne. Car, furieux de ne pouvoir faire annuler son mariage avec Catherine d' Aragon , Henry ne va pas hésiter à couper les ponts avec celui qu'il qualifie « d'évêque de Rome » Furieux, enry VIII passe outre, abandonne la religion catholique et épouse Anne le 25 janvier 1533, après avoir répudié Catherine d'Aragon. L'année précédente, Henry VIII avait titré Anne Boleyn marquise de Prembroke, celle-ci devenant la première femme à être anoblie sans passer par un héritage On 3 November 1534 King Henry VIII became the Head of the newly founded Church of England. At the time this was a seismic shift in the power dynamics of Europe, as England's split from Rome was confirmed Start studying Henry VIII Religion. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools HENRY VIII (1491 - 1547; ruled 1509 - 1547). HENRY VIII (ENGLAND) (1491 - 1547; ruled 1509 - 1547), king of England. Henry VIII has a good claim to be regarded as England's most important monarch. It was he who initiated and pushed through the seminal event in the nation's history, the break with the church of Rome.Though historians have long debated the king's motivations and the.
Tudor Monarchs Display : Henry VII - Henry VIII - Edward VI - Mary I - Elizabeth I (primaryresources.co.uk) 10 strange ways Tudors died (BBC) Welcome to an interactive site for 7-11 year olds about Henry VIII and the Tudors (brims.co.uk) The Life of Elizabeth I of England (tripline.net) Will & Sarah document the life of Queen Elizabeth I of England, from her birth at Greenwich Palace in 1533. Mary, born in 1516, was the only surviving child of King Henry VIII's 24-year marriage to Katherine of Aragon. Seventeen years later, Elizabeth was born to Henry and his second wife Anne Boleyn, in 1533. Henry's third queen Jane Seymour gave him his long-awaited male heir, Edward, in 1537 Henry VII, king of England (1485-1509), who succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York and founded the Tudor dynasty. His son was Henry VIII. Learn more about Henry VII's life, reign, and accomplishments in this article THE STATUTE OF SIX ARTICLES, passed in 1539, marks the beginning of the reactionary period that continued until the close of Henry VIII's reign. It enumerated precisely and clearly six points of mediaeval doctrine and practice which the Protestants had begun to assail, and imposed severe penalties on all who would not accept them. The first article expressed the doctrine of transubstantiation. This PowerPoint cover a series of lessons all about Henry VIII. Starting with his early life and ending with Religion in Tudor England
Henry VIII was crowned King of England in 1509. So why does the Tudor monarch still fascinate us? Here are some surprising facts Henri IV, né en 1553 à Pau (alors dans le royaume de Navarre), fut roi de Navarre à partir de 1572 et roi de France à partir de 1589. Il est mort à Paris assassiné en 1610 par Ravaillac. Il est le fils d'Antoine de Bourbon, descendant du roi Louis IX, chef du parti protestant français et de Jeanne d'Albret, reine de Navarre.Il est élevé dans les idées religieuses de la confession. Henry VIII (28 juin 1491 - 28 janvier 1547) fut roi d'Angleterre et d'Irlande de 1509 à sa mort
Afficher Religions du monde, ép Religions du monde - Le roi Henri VIII, premier brexiteur de l'histoire de l'Angleterre - 16 avr. 202 What are Henry VIII powers? 'Henry VIII powers' allow the government to change an act of parliament, or even to repeal it, after it has been passed and without the need to go through parliament a second time. The clauses take their name from the 1539 Statute of Proclamations, which allowed Henry VIII to rule by royal proclamation, ie by decree. Henry VIII powers are intended simply to help. Henri VIII de la maison Tudor est le roi d'Angleterre et d'Irlande de 1509 à sa mort. Il est aussi le premier chef de l'Église anglaise. Lors de son règne, il sème la controverse en divorçant de sa première femme, Catherine d'Aragon. Cet événement cause le schisme de l'Église d'Angleterre avec la religion catholique. Par la suite, Henri VIII aura cinq autres épouses. Il.
THE RELIGION OF HENRY VIII* RICHARD REX University of Cambridge abstract. This article takes issue with the influential recent interpretation of Henry VIII's religious position as consistently 'Erasmian'. Bringing to the discussion not only a re-evaluation of much familiar evidence but also a considerable quantity of hitherto unknown or little-known material, it proposes instead that Henry's. Religion, Ideas and Reform - Henry VIII. 4.0 / 5 based on 3 ratings? Created by: Molly Spicer-Jones; Created on: 15-04-16 18:33; Fullscreen. Renaissance Ideas: These ideas have made tentative appearances in intellectual life and culture during the reign of Henry VII. However, it was in the reign of Henry VIII that Renaissance ideas began to flourish among some of the elite groups within. Henry VIII's speech before Parliament, 1545 This speech, given on 24 December 1545, was recorded by a member of Parliament. These words bring Henry VIII's personality to life - at times belligerent, then coaxing, mixing flattery and threats
This force along with the force of religion were oftentimes intertwined and had an immense influence on King Henry VIII's reign, marriages, and religion. There were three clear examples of these forces working together to make an impact. The King's first wife Catherine of Aragon caused drastic changes to religion in England simply by proving unable to provide a male heir to the throne. By. Britain 1486-1688. Flag of the United Kingdom. EuroDocs > History of the United Kingdom : Primary Documents > 1486 - 1688. Contents. 1 Middle Ages through 1485; 2 The Reign of Henry VII (1485-1509) 3 The Reign of Henry VIII (1509-1547) 4 The Reigns of Edward VI, Lady Jane Gray, & Mary I (1547-1558) 5 The Reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) 6 The Reign of James I (1603-1625) 7 The Reign of Charles. When Henry VIII instituted the break with Rome, he ushered in an era that would see Protestants and Catholics burn, starve, hang and hack each other to death in their thousands. Peter Marshall tells the story of England's bloody wars of religion
. However, the two kings clearly made contributions to the church and had some good ties with the church. In 1539, there was a substantial change in Bible history as King Henry the VIII translated the bible from Latin into English. This shows that King Henry VIII was trying to help. Henry VIII had high hopes for his marriage to Anne Boleyn and was expecting her to produce his longed for son and heir to the throne, and what did he get instead? A daughter and a dead son, miscarried at around 15 weeks. No-one can blame Henry for being bitterly disappointed, but it's hard to forgive him for standing by while people plotted against his wife (or even being a part of the plot. Henry ruled for a fair long while, and the problems he faced changed a lot though those years, however, some of the more long-running problems include: 1. Produce an heir. Life in the Middle Ages could be cut short with very little warning, and it.. Henry VIII (1491-1547) a régné sur l'Angleterre de 1509 à sa mort en 1547. Son règne fut l'occasion de nombreuses avancées en politique étrangère, dans la religion et dans les arts, mais il est resté dans l'histoire pour le nombre élevé de ses épouses : six au total .Les annulations, mises à mort et remariages ont également eu des conséquences historiques : l'annulation. EDUCATION. Education has always meant a lot to me. As a child I was tutored by my grandmother Margaret Beaufort, she was almost like a second mother to me. She pushed and inspired me to continue my education as well as teaching me the lessons and ways of God and how a proper Catholic child should act. He was tutored in the subjects of geometry, languages (Spanish, French, Latin), grammar.
Henry VIII, King of England, is famous mostly for the fact that he was married so many times in hopes of getting a son. This is not, however, the reason why he is most important in historical terms Henry VIII. - 2 citations - Référence citations - Citations Henry VIII Sélection de 2 citations et proverbes sur le thème Henry VIII Découvrez un dicton, une parole, un bon mot, un proverbe, une citation ou phrase Henry VIII issus de livres, discours ou entretiens. 2 citation Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII.. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation.
. Il parlait le français et le latin, jouait du luth à la perfection et passa bientôt pour le souverain le plus élégant d'Europe son seul rival sur ce point était François 1er. Comme le roi de France, Henri VIII fut l'une des figures majeures de la renaissance. son règne coïncida avec ceux de Charles Quint et des papes. Henry VIII further improved the building to his liking by adding a Privy Gallery, a bowling alley, a tilt yard, a cockpit and real tennis courts. Hans Holbein painted many of the ceilings as well. As per the book, London, Volume 1 (Page 339, Edited by Charles Knight), Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII were married at Whitehall Palace on 25 January 1533
Henry VIII of England Quotes. facebook; twitter; googleplus; Pastime with good company I love and shall, until I die. Grudge who list, but none deny! So God be pleased, thus live will I. Henry VIII of England. Lists, Grudge, Good Company. 433 Copy quote. Two beheadings out of six wives is too many. Henry VIII of England. Two, Wife, Six. 440 Copy quote. Whoever leads an auspicious life here and. Henry VIII, the notorious King of England, had an exceptionally significant influence on English history. The importance of Henry's eminent reign is typically overshadowed by his six wives, but to discover its true essence one must breach the barriers yielded by the many fallacies concerning his overly publicized liaisons. Although to many he is remembered solely for his hedonistic life style. Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond (1519 - 1536), Henry VIII's illegitimate son Henry had another string to his bow - his illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy. He decided to bring the boy forward from relative obscurity, give him royal titles and a household fit for a King's son to see if that would be a better option than a daughter Henry VII: Religion. Advantages. Had Papal Support before the Battle of Bosworth ; Was able to successfully attack the privilege of sanctuary; 8000 parish churches; Church offered charity for people; Pope did little to interfere in the running of the Church of England; Church courts worked in conjunction with the English Legal System; Disadvantages. Opposition to the church did exist and there.
Religion. Henry Vll l brought religious upheaval to England. When he became king, most people belonged to the Catholic Church, which was headed by the Pope, in Rome. In 1534, Henry broke away from the Catholic Church and proclaimed himself head of the Church of England. The land and riches of the church became Henry's property and he sold off most of this land to dukes, barons and other. Henry VIII's rule had a dramatic and long-lasting impact on European history, in large part because of his years-long quest to create a male Tudor heir to follow him on the throne. He began by. King Henry VIII (June 28, 1491- January 28, 1547) was the second son of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. He reigned as King of England from April 22 (crowned on June 24), 1509 until his death on January 28, 1547. He was accorded the title King of Ireland by the Irish Parliament in 1541, having previously been styled Lord of Ireland. Henry - from Prince to King. Henry was created Prince. Politics and Religion in the Reign of Henry VIII: A Historiographical Review. by Nadine Lewycky. Introduction. Although this year represents the 500th anniversary of Henry VIII's coronation and, accordingly, there is a large array of celebratory exhibitions and public events, Henry's reign does not need hype to spark interest and debate amongst historians, and to fascinate the populace. Henry VIII: The King and His Court by Alison Weir (2001). British Kings & Queens by Mike Ashley (2002) ISBN -7867-1104-3. Henry VIII: The King and His Court by Alison Weir (2002) ISBN 034543708X. Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII by David Starkey (2003) ISBN 0060005505. The Kings and Queens of England by Ian Crofton (2006). Further readin
Henry VIII created a religion called the 'Protestant' religion, which is headed by the current king or queen. From 1521, she showed a keen interest in religious reform, and in this too she may have influenced Anne Boleyn. 5 things you (probably) didn't know about Henry VIII Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII and Elizabe. Henry VIII., whose attention to religion was noted as one of his. When Henry VIII came across Anne Boleyn, he was already in his fourteenth year of marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Divorce was the only option. Unfortunately the pope refused to grant him one. After nearly seven years of fighting the Vatican, Henry got his Tudor breeches in a twist and decided to break away from the Roman Catholic Church. He established the Church of England, making himself. Henry VIII succeeded where his predecessors had failed. He broke England free of papal control once and for all and established the Anglican Church with the King at its head, not the Pope. This.
Quiz Henry VIII : Connaissez-vous bien ce roi d'Angleterre à l'origine d'un schisme religieux ? - Q1: A quelle dynastie appartient-il ? Stuart, Tudor, Lancastre,.. Henry VIII's Death. On January 28, 1547, at the age of 55, King Henry VIII of England died. As a middle-aged man, Henry became covered with pus-filled boils and possibly suffered from gout. A. Henry VIII ruled England for 37 years - 281 days. Once I started thinking about all the events in Henry's life I wanted to see what they looked like in timeline form. Please keep in mind these are not all the events in his life, but some of the most important events that, in my opinion, shaped who he was at the end of his life Why did Henry VIII break with Rome? In 1509 Henry married his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Catherine of Aragon had been the wife of Henry's older brother, Arthur, who had died aged 15. When Arthur died Henry became first in line to the throne. Henry's father, Henry VII died in 1509. A few months later, Henry was married and had been. Henri VIII hésite encore entre la France et l'Empire. Après Pavie (février 1525), il se montre résolu à une action énergique mais c'est l'empereur victorieux qui, maintenant, accueille froidement ses ouvertures. II se dispose alors à diriger en personne une expédition. Depuis qu'il a fait décapiter le duc de Buckingham, coupable de s'être donné comme le plus proche héritier du.
Henry VIII had not expected to become king: his elder brother Arthur had died. Henry had therefore received little tutoring in politics and government, and was happy to rely on his friend Wolsey to advise him. Constantly changing alliances between nations dominated Europe in the 16th century. Henry VIII and Wolsey sought to make England as. The League having been broken up by the selfish policy of Ferdinand, Henry VIII now made peace with France and for some years held the balance of power on the Continent, though not without parting with a good deal of money. Wolsey was made a cardinal in 1515 and exercised more influence than ever, but it was somewhat against his advice that Henry, in 1519, secretly became a candidate for the. HIST6124 Religion and Politics in Henry VIII's England. Module Overview. The aim of this module is to increase your knowledge and understanding of the Henrician Reformation, a period of crucial importance in English political and religious history. The heart of the course is a study of the 'high politics' of the break with Rome in the early 1530s, set in the context of the nature of early. Only eight months had gone since Henry VIII of England had been suspended in death, there to lie like Mohammed's coffin, hardly in the Church nor out of it, attended by his martyrs and the acidulous fivefold ghosts of his wives. King Francis of France, stranded by his neighbour's death in the midst of a policy so advanced, so brilliant and so intricate that it should at last batter. Particularly, for Henry VIII, these subjects had great influence on him:astronomy, navigation and cartographer - his interest in these subjects had great impact on his life. As mentioned before, pressured by his grandmother, Henry VIII was also taught religious subjects such as the Roman Catholic religion. To Henry, learning new languages had great meaning. While studying various languages, he.
The Pope was the head of the Roman Catholic Church. Henry VIII broke away from the Roman Catholic Church after the pope refused to let Henry annul his marriage to Katharine of Aragon and declare his daughter Mary Tudor illegitimate. Henry broke aw.. Henry VIII made England a Protestant country. Marriage, religion, power or money? Henry VIII wanted to divorce atharine of Aragon and marry Anne oleyn so that he could have a son. Henry was a atholic, and the Pope would not allow him to have a divorce. In 1534, Henry was declared head of the hurch of England and England became a protestant.